Unarmed Against Hitler: Civilian Resistance in Europe, 1939-1943
What did the peoples and governments of occupied Europe do--or not do--to impede Nazi administrators and armies, to facilitate an Allied victory, and to resist the Holocaust? These are some of the questions raised and examined in detail in Semelin's fascinating account. Essential concepts such as "resistance" or "non-cooperation" and "legitimacy" are explored as to their implications for what happened and what the meaning may be for future proponents of non-violence in the face of aggression.
"With great clarity and scholarship, Semelin goes beyond historical particulars to define the basic principles that underlay civilian resistance. This is an exceptional work, one that shows how important the resistance was-and not just in military terms-even before the tide of war changed in 1943. General, advance undergraduate, and above."
"The book is a must read in this season of homage to the military sacrifice, not to defame those losses, but to honor all who wove the tapestry of valiant resistance to tyranny."
--The Journal of Military History
"....offers some very valuable insights. Should be read by policy makers and theorists interested in international defense in the nuclear age."
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
Foreword by Stanley Hoffmann
INTRODUCTION: A NEW LOOK AT THE “RESISTANCE”
1. THE MAIN TRAITS OF THE NAZI OCCUPATION IN EUROPE
Principal Forms of Domination
Political Expressions of Collaboration
Reasons for State Collaboration: A Comparison between Denmark and France
2. WHICH RESISTANCE?
Which History of the Resistance?
The Field of Civilian Resistance
3. THE COMPLEXITIES OF NONCOOPERATION
The Complexity of Behaviors Toward the Occupying Forces
The Progressive Radicalization of Relations between the Occupying Forces and the Occupied Population
4. THE QUESTION OF LEGITIMACY
The Netherlands’ Contradictions
Two Political Rationales for Resistance
5. ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL COHESION
Laws of Reactivity
6. THE ROLE OF OPINION
From Opinion to Resistance
The Public Expression of Resisting Opinion
The Political Walls of Civil Society
The Theory of the Three Circles
7. CIVILIAN RESISTANCE AGAINST REPRESSION
Other Factors of Vulnerability
8. CIVILIAN RESISTANCE TO THE GENOCIDE
The Strategy of Victimization
The Screen of State
The Screen of Opinion
The Screen of Social Networks
The Terminal Stage of Cancer
Can Genocide Be Prevented?
9. WHICH ROLE FOR WHICH RESULTS?
Surviving in an Independent Society
Direct, Indirect, and Dissuasive Effectiveness
CONCLUSION: THE NEW FIELD OF CIVILIAN-BASED DEFENCE STRATEGIES
Appendix: Elements of Methodology
List of Examples Studied
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