ICNC Press and Publications
ICNC started its own press to support extensive circulation of free or low-cost resources about civil resistance—both original/in-house and externally-sourced texts—for a diverse international readership. Since 2015, we have published a number of works including:
- The ICNC Monograph Series, which consists of commissioned research that is written to reach practitioner communities
- The ICNC Special Report Series, which draws on cutting-edge research to cover topics pertinent to ongoing policy discussions and practitioner debates
- Cutting edge resources for practitioners around the world
- Important books and translations that might otherwise fall out of print
All ICNC Press publications can be downloaded for free and their print copies are made available for purchase at the lowest possible price via Amazon.
If you are interested in publishing opportunities with ICNC, contact us at email@example.com.
The ICNC Monograph Series aims to bridge the gap between research and practice. Drawing on scholarly literature and high quality analytical and empirical analyses equal to that of a serious academic publication, monographs aim to enrich public discourse by expanding scientific knowledge in the field of civil resistance and providing general and specific recommendations for practitioners such as activists, organizers, journalists, and members of INGOs and the policy community. For more information about this series, and/or if you would like to write a monograph, click here. The Editor of the ICNC Monograph Series is ICNC’s Senior Director for Education and Research, Dr. Maciej Bartkowski.
Civil Resistance Tactics in the 21st Century belongs on the bookshelf of anyone who is studying or practicing nonviolent action. It expands on the list of 198 methods of nonviolent action first categorized by Gene Sharp in 1973 book. It also analyzes strengths and weaknesses of Dr. Sharp’s typologies and updates his work by documenting additional methods of nonviolent action and referring to new scholarship from the fields of civil resistance, human rights, and social change. The monograph concludes with a summary of lessons learned and how they are relevant for practitioners, educators, and scholars of civil resistance. Recommendations are made for further application and research.
This study assesses different types of external assistance—material and non-material—to civil resistance movements offered by state and non-state actors at different stages: pre-, during and post-conflict periods. It evaluates the impact of specific types of aid, and its timing and provisions by different actor,s on the overall trajectories of civil resistance campaigns and their outcomes.
Its findings are based on quantitative and qualitative research, including an ICNC-sponsored multi-year research project that examines the effects of different forms of external aid on the outcomes and longer-term impacts of civil resistance campaigns.
Why do some nonviolent revolutions lead to successful democratization while others fail to consolidate democratic change? And what can activists do to push toward a victory over dictatorship that results in long-term political freedom?
Several studies show that nonviolent revolutions are generally a more positive force for democratization than violent revolutions and top-down political transitions. However, some nonviolent revolutions, such as the Arab Spring revolution in Egypt, do not seem to fit this pattern. This study takes on this puzzle and reveals that the answer lies in large part in the actions of civil society prior to and during transition. Democracy is most likely when activists can keep their social bases mobilized for positive political change while directing that mobilization toward building new political institutions.
Nations are not helpless if the military decides to stage a coup. On dozens of occasions in recent decades, even in the face of intimidated political leaders and international indifference, civil society has risen up to challenge putschists through large-scale nonviolent direct action and noncooperation. How can an unarmed citizenry mobilize so quickly and defeat a powerful military committed to seizing control of the government? What accounts for the success or failure of nonviolent resistance movements to reverse coups and consolidate democratic gains?
This monograph presents in-depth case studies and analysis intended to improve our understanding of the strategic utility of civil resistance against military takeovers; the nature of civil resistance mobilization against coups; and the role of civil resistance against coups in countries’ subsequent democratization efforts (or failure thereof). It offers key lessons for pro-democracy activists and societies vulnerable to military usurpation of power; national civilian and military bureaucracies; external state and non-state agencies supportive of democracy; and future scholarship on this subject.
International human rights law did not come into existence top-down, out of the benevolent intentions of states, even though states eventually began to recognize that large-scale human rights abuses could pose a threat to the international order. Rather, it came into existence from the bottom-up efforts of ordinary people in civil society to ally with each other in solidarity and demand their rights, often through organized nonviolent campaigns and movements that pressured elites and powerholders to recognize or grant individual rights (freedom for slaves, women’s rights, labor rights, and children’s rights, to name a few). Unlike international law generally, the real source of international human rights law has been the coordinated, organized and nonviolently forceful efforts of individuals—in other words, what one can refer to as people power.
How can we understand when nonviolent movements will stay nonviolent? When are they likely to break down into violence? In this monograph, Jonathan Pinckney analyzes both what promotes and undermines nonviolent discipline in civil resistance movements. Combining quantitative research on thousands of nonviolent and violent actions with a detailed comparison of three relevant case studies of civil resistance during the “Color Revolutions”, Pinckney’s analysis provides important lessons for activists and organizers on the front lines, as well as for practitioners whose work may impact the outcomes of nonviolent struggles. We learn how repression consistently induces violence, as do government concessions. On the flip side, we see that structuring a campaign in an inclusive and non-hierarchical way is conducive to greater nonviolent discipline.
Confronted with civil war, local civilians typically either collaborate with the strongest actor in town or flee the area. Yet civilians are not stuck only with these choices. Collectively defying armed groups by engaging in organized nonviolent forms of noncooperation, self-organization and disruption is another option. This monograph explores this option through sustained and organized civil resistance led by ordinary peasants against state and non-state repressive actors in Colombia’s longstanding civil war: the case of the Peace Community of San José de Apartadó.
Contrary to a perception—fueled by Chinese propaganda during the 2008 Tibetan uprising that the Tibetan struggle is heading toward extremism—this study shows that the movement for Tibetan freedom has since the 1950s moved toward a tighter embrace of nonviolent resistance. The study traces this evolution, analyzing the central themes, purposes, challenges, strategies, tactics and impacts of three major Tibetan uprisings over the past six decades. Tibetans are now waging a quiet, slow-building nonviolent movement, centered on strengthening the Tibetan national and cultural fabric via what the author refers to as “transformative resistance.” This is happening in an immensely repressive political environment, which shows that there is a way to mobilize people power against even one of the most ruthless regimes in the world.
By: Stephen Zunes
Date of Publication: May 2021
The Sudanese revolution began in December 2018 with a series of strikes, protests, and other acts of civil resistance taking place throughout the country. In February 2019, dictatorial president Omar al-Bashir declared a state of emergency and dissolved the national and regional governments, strengthening direct rule by military and intelligence officers. Massive protests resumed in early April and the military staged a coup, removing al-Bashir from power after a 30-year rule and assuming power as the Transitional Military Council. Pro-democracy activists demanded they turn over power to a civilian-led interim government with protests, along with negotiations, continued. On June 3, security forces massacred 128 people and detained and abused hundreds of detainees. Pro-democracy groups responded with a general strike and increased protests. Negotiations resumed and an agreement was signed in August formally transferring the government to civilian-led bodies.
This study interviews key activists in the movement as well as journalists and scholars who chronicled it and key civil society groups which led the struggle. This qualitative research takes place primarily in Khartoum and Omdurman, the country’s two largest cities.
By Janel B. Galvanek and James Suah Shilue
Date of Publication: May 2021
From the establishment of the Liberian state in 1848, the Americo-Liberian settlers—descendants of freed slaves from the USA—imposed a form of indirect rule over the indigenous Liberian population that oppressed, marginalized and exploited the majority of the population. This treatment of the native population became increasingly unsustainable, and in 1980 the settler government was overthrown. A 10-year dictatorship was followed by a violent civil war that lasted until 2003. Using the framework developed by Veronique Dudouet in her 2017 ICNC Special Report, Powering to Peace: Integrating Civil Resistance and Peacebuilding Strategies, this case study examines the methodologies and approaches of the various actors involved in civil resistance and peacebuilding throughout the various phases of conflict in Liberia, from a period of latent conflict to the post-settlement phase after 2003. Many different actors in Liberia pursued strategies of peacebuilding and civil resistance simultaneously, which led to the complementarity of their work and increased the impact they hadon both political and civic reform, as well as on the ultimate peace process. The case study takes an in-depth look at the impact that the strategies had on each other in their common pursuit of peace and justice in Liberia.
From the Hills to the Streets to the Table: Civil Resistance and Peacebuilding in the Transformation of Nepal’s Maoist Conflict
By Ches Thurber and Subindra Bogati
Date of Publication: April 2021
From 1996 until 2006 Nepal experienced a civil war that resulted in an estimated 17,000 casualties. Remarkably, the conflict ended when Maoist insurgents forged an agreement with the country’s political parties to jointly launch a civil resistance campaign to oust the King. The civil resistance campaign succeeded in overthrowing the King, the former rebels have been integrated into normal democratic politics—even holding the premiership on multiple occasions—and Nepal has not seen a reversion to large-scale violence. However, many of the social tensions that initiated the conflict still have not been resolved. Protests are a regular occurrence and there has been a proliferation of armed groups in Nepal’s southern plains and Western hills. What caused the Maoists to take arms? How were they convinced to transition to civil resistance? What accounts for the success and failures of the subsequent peace process?
This publication analyzes these questions by utilizing the framework developed by Veronique Dudouet in her 2017 ICNC Special Report, Powering to Peace: Integrating Civil Resistance and Peacebuilding Strategies. We trace the development of conflict from a period of latent conflict with high levels of horizontal inequalities and structural violence to an outbreak of overt, but initially violent conflict. We then illustrate how a transition from civil war to civil resistance was made possible and led to a successful conflict settlement. However, flaws in the conflict settlement process have produced a turbulent post-settlement process, one that falls short of the goals of reconciliation, transitional justice, and sustainable peace.
By: Jonathan Pinckney
Date of Publication: April 2021
How do nonviolent resistance movements oust dictators? What effects do these different ways of ousting dictators have on countries’ long-term political trajectories? In this special report, I trace the pathways through which civil resistance movements of the last seventy years have removed dictatorships and the impact of these different pathways on levels of democratic progress. I find that pathways that involve campaign initiative, institutional mechanisms, and building cooperative norms – particularly negotiated transitions – tend to lead to the highest levels of democratic progress.
Preventing Mass Atrocities: From a Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) to a Right to Assist (RtoA) Campaigns of Civil Resistance
Events of the last decade demand new approaches to atrocity prevention that are adaptable, innovative and independent of a state-centered doctrine. With the aim of reducing risk factors such as civil war, we argue for a new normative framework called The Right to Assist (RtoA), which could strengthen international coordination and support for nonviolent civil resistance campaigns demanding rights, freedom and justice against non-democratic rule.
RtoA would: 1) engage a wide range of stakeholders such as NGOs, states, multilateral institutions and others; 2) bolster various factors of resilience against state fragility; and 3) incentivize opposition groups to sustain commitment to nonviolent strategies of change. The adoption of this doctrine can reduce the probability of violent conflict that significantly heightens atrocity risk, while increasing the prospects for constructive human development.
What drives governments to crack down on and kill their own civilians? And how—and to what extent—has nonviolent resistance historically mitigated the likelihood of mass killings? This special report explores the factors associated with mass killings: when governments intentionally kill 1,000 or more civilian noncombatants. We find that these events are surprisingly common, occurring in just under half of all maximalist popular uprisings against states, yet they are strongly associated with certain types of resistance. Nonviolent uprisings that do not receive foreign material aid and that manage to gain military defections tend to be the safest. These findings shed light on how both dissidents and their foreign allies can work together to reduce the likelihood of violent confrontations.
This report explores the complementary ideas and practices that civil resistance and peacebuilding approaches present, each from different points along the conflict transformation spectrum. Both strategies oppose violence in all its forms, and seek to pursue just peace by peaceful means. However, they take different approaches to conflict transformation, in particular how they analyze primary causes of violence and how they respond to conflict. Drawing on a number of case studies, this report aims to help practitioners and scholars understand how integrating these strategies can help establish a path for “powering to peace.”
Resources for Practitioners
The Journalists’ Guide to Unraveling and Reporting Nonviolent Struggles for Rights, Freedom and Justice
By Deborah Mathis and Hailey Grace Allen
Date of Publication: April 2021
Chronicling Civil Resistance is the first known manual for journalists that addresses the concepts, terms and mechanisms of nonviolent resistance, as well as myths and misconceptions that hinder comprehensive and accurate coverage.
Written by two former journalists with input from one of the world’s leading authorities on civil resistance, Chronicling Civil Resistance explores the unique terminology and concepts that nonviolent movements employ; and it delves into the nuances of nonviolent strategies.
ICNC invites journalists, journalism schools and movement organizers to download the guide for free and share it with others who may benefit from a deeper understanding of civil resistance.
The Path of Most Resistance: A Step-by-Step Guide to Planning Nonviolent Campaigns is a practical guide for activists and organizers of all levels, who wish to grow their resistance activities into a more strategic, fixed-term campaign. It guides readers through the campaign planning process, breaking it down into several steps and providing tools and exercises for each step. Upon finishing the book, readers will have what they need to guide their peers through the process of planning a campaign. This process, as laid out in the guide, is estimated to take about 12 hours from start to finish.
The guide is divided into two parts. The first lays out and contextualizes campaign planning tools and their objectives. It also explains the logic behind these tools, and how they can be modified to better suit a particular group’s context. The second part provides easily reproducible and shareable lesson plans for using each of those tools, as well as explores how to embed the tools in the wider planning process.
The Second Edition released in March 2021 includes chapters on tactics and running a tactical planning workshop, and a Foreword by Hardy Merriman.
The field of civil resistance is dedicated to understanding how people can fight for rights, freedom, and justice, without the use of violence. This glossary provides definitions and expansive commentary on civil resistance terminology to support sharing of lessons learned and research across different languages.
It is intended to support translation of materials, but non-translators will also find value in it, as a great deal can be learned about the concepts in the field that underlie each term.
Glossary features: Over 150 key terms defined • Term usage in a sentence • Related terms • Commentary and Introduction
Evitando Atrocidades Masivas: De la Responsabilidad de Proteger (RP) al Derecho de Ayudar (DA) Campañas de resistencia civil
Los eventos de la última década exigen nuevos enfoques para la prevención de atrocidades que sean adaptables, innovadores e independientes de una doctrina centrada en el estado. Con el objetivo de reducir los factores de riesgo como la guerra civil, abogamos por un nuevo marco normativo llamado El derecho a la asistencia (RtoA), que fortalecería la coordinación internacional y el apoyo a las campañas de resistencia civil no violentas que exigen derechos, libertad y justicia contra los no democráticos regla.
RtoA: 1) involucraría a una amplia gama de partes interesadas, como ONG, estados, instituciones multilaterales y otros; 2) reforzar varios factores de resistencia contra la fragilidad del estado; y 3) incentivar a los grupos de oposición a mantener el compromiso con las estrategias de cambio no violentas.
La adopción de esta doctrina puede reducir la probabilidad de conflicto violento que aumenta significativamente el riesgo de atrocidad, al tiempo que aumenta las perspectivas de desarrollo humano constructivo.
La Prévention des Atrocités de Masse: De la Responsabilité de Protéger (RdP) au Droit d’assistance (DdA) des Campagnes de Résistance Civile
Les événements de la dernière décennie exigent de nouvelles approches en matière de prévention des atrocités, qui soient adaptables, innovantes et indépendantes d’une doctrine centrée sur l’État. Dans le but de réduire les facteurs de risque tels que la guerre civile, nous soutenons un nouveau cadre normatif dénommé Droit d’Assistance (DdA), qui renforcerait la coordination internationale et le soutien aux campagnes de résistance civile nonviolente luttant pour les droits, la liberté et la justice face aux processus non démocratiques.
Le DdA: 1) impliquerait un large éventail de parties prenantes telles que les ONG, les États, les institutions multilatérales et ainsi de suite; 2) renforcerait divers facteurs de résilience face à la fragilité des États; et 3) inciterait les groupes d’opposition à maintenir leur engagement envers l’utilisation de stratégies de changement nonviolentes.
L’adoption de cette doctrine pourrait permettre de réduire la probabilité d’un conflit violent qui augmenterait considérablement le risque d’atrocité, tout en augmentant les perspectives de développement humain constructif.
Preventing Mass Atrocities: From a Responsibility to Protest to a Right to Assist Campaigns of Civil Resistance — Arabic
The Path of Most Resistance: A Step by Step Guide to Planning Nonviolent Campaigns (Urdu)
by Ivan Marovic
Date of Publication: March 2021
Download this publication (PDF 11mb)
Ścieżka Największego Oporu: Przewodnik pokazujący krok po kroku jak planować kampanie oporu społecznego bez użycia przemocy
Ścieżka największego oporu. Przewodnik pokazujący krok po kroku jak planować kampanie oporu społecznego bez użycia przemocy jest praktycznym przewodnikiem dla aktywistów i organizatorów wszystkich szczebli, którzy chcieliby rozwinąć swoje działania w zakresie oporu bez przemocy w bardziej strategiczną kampanię o określonym terminie trwania. Prowadzi on czytelników przez proces planowania kampanii, dzieląc go na kilka etapów i zapewniając narzędzia i ćwiczenia do każdego z nich. Po zakończeniu lektury niniejszego podręcznika, czytelnicy będą dysponować wszystkim, co jest potrzebne do przeprowadzenia kolegów i koleżanek przez proces planowania kampanii. Proces ten – w formie przedstawionej w niniejszym przewodniku – zajmie od początku do końca około 12 godzin.
Przewodnik jest podzielony na dwie części. Pierwsza część określa i kontekstualizuje narzędzia planowania kampanii i ich cele. Wyjaśnia też logikę leżącą u podstaw tych narzędzi oraz to, jak można je modyfikować, by lepiej pasowały do kontekstu działania każdej grupy. Druga część zawiera konspekty zajęć poświęconych stosowaniu tych narzędzi, które można powielać i dzielić się nimi. Wyjaśnia także w jaki sposób wpisać te narzędzia w szerszy proces planowania.
El camino de la mayor resistencia: Una guía para planificar Campañas noviolentas es una guía práctica para activistas y organizadores de todos los niveles que desean hacer crecer sus actividades de resistencia noviolenta en una Campaña más estratégica y de duración determinada. Es una guía para los lectores a través del proceso de planificación de la Campaña, dividiéndola en varios pasos y proporcionando herramientas y ejercicios para cada paso. Al terminar el libro, los lectores tendrán lo que necesitan para guiar a sus compañeros en el proceso de planificación de una Campaña. Se estima que este proceso, tal y como se describe en la guía, dura unas 12 horas de principio a fin.
La guía está dividida en dos partes. La primera presenta y contextualiza las herramientas de planificación de Campañas y sus objetivos. También explica la lógica detrás de estas herramientas y cómo pueden ser modificadas para adaptarse mejor al contexto de un grupo en particular. La segunda parte proporciona planes de lecciones fácilmente reproducibles y compartibles para el uso de cada una de esas herramientas, y explora cómo integrar las herramientas en el más amplio proceso de planificación.
El camí de la major resistència: Una guia per planificar Campanyes noviolentes és una guia pràctica per activistes i organitzadors de tots els nivells que volen fer créixer les seves activitats de resistència noviolenta, amb unes Campanyes més estratègiques i de durada determinada. És una guia per als lectors a través del procés de planificació de les Campanyes, dividint-les en diversos passos i proporcionant eines i exercicis per a cada pas. A l’acabar el llibre, els lectors tindran el què necessiten per guiar els seus companys/es en el procés de planificació d’una Campanya. S’estima que aquest procés, tal com es descriu a la guia, dura unes 12 hores de principi a fi.
La guia està dividida en dues parts. La primera part, presenta i contextualitza les eines de planificació de Campanyes i els seus objectius. També explica la lògica darrere d’aquestes eines, i com poden ser modificades per adaptar-les millor al context d’un grup en particular. La segona part, proporciona plans de lliçons fàcilment reproduïbles i compartibles per a l’ús de cadascuna d’aquestes eines, i explora com integrar les eines en el més ampli procés de planificació.
Autor: Ivan Marovic
Tradutor: João Vicente de Paulo Júnior, Abril 2020
Editora: Maíra Irigaray
Data da publicação: Abril 2020
O Caminho da Maior Resistência: Um Guia Passo a Passo para o Planejamento de Campanhas Não-Violentas é um guia prático para ativistas e organizadores em todos os níveis que desejam transformar suas atividades de resistência não-violenta em uma campanha mais estratégica, com prazo fixo. Orienta os leitores através do processo de planejamento da campanha, dividindo-o em várias etapas e fornecendo ferramentas e exercícios para cada etapa. Ao terminar o livro, os leitores dispõem do que precisam para orientar seus pares no processo de planejamento de uma campanha. Estima-se que esse processo, conforme descrito no guia, leve cerca de 12 horas do início ao fim.
La voie de la plus grande résistance: Un guide étape par étape pour la planification des campagnes non violentes
Auteur: Ivan Marovic
Traducteur: JPD Systems LLC, Avril 2020
Designer: Joe García
Éditeurs: Hardy Merriman et Amber French
La voie de la plus grande résistance: un guide étape par étape pour la planification des campagnes non violentes est destiné aux activistes et organisateurs de tous niveaux, qui souhaitent faire évoluer leurs activités de résistance non violente vers des campagnes plus stratégiques à durée déterminée. Il guide ses lecteurs à travers le processus de planification d’une campagne. Il en explique les différentes étapes et propose pour chacune d’elles des outils et des exercices. Au terme du Guide, les lecteurs auront acquis ce dont ils ont besoin pour conduire leurs pairs à travers le processus de planification d’une campagne. Tel qu’il est expliqué dans le guide, ce processus devrait prendre environ 12 heures du début à la fin.
Ce guide comprend deux parties. La première présente et contextualise les outils de planification d’une campagne et leurs objectifs. Elle explique également la logique qui sous-tend ces outils et la manière dont on peut les modifier pour les adapter au contexte d’un groupe particulier. La seconde partie fournit des fiches pédagogiques faciles à reproduire et à partager pour utiliser chacun de ces outils, et explique comment intégrer ces outils dans le processus de planification.
By: Jacques Semelin
English publication of La liberté au bout des ondes, 2nd edition
Translated by Elizabeth Libbrecht
Foreword by Adam Roberts
Afterword by Howard Barrell
Original (French) publication: Nouveau Monde Editions 2009
English publication: ICNC Press, February 2017
Free Download | Purchase a Print Copy
This book on the relationship between communications and nonviolent resistance captures a new understanding of the events that led ultimately to the fall of the authoritarian system in communist Central and Eastern Europe in 1989. In particular, it analyzes history-making acts of resistance and the movements that propelled them in Budapest in 1956, Prague in 1968, Gdansk in 1980 and East Berlin in 1989, in their own historical continuum.
Par: Veronique Dudouet
Traduction: Claudia McKenny Engström, February 2020
Ce rapport explore les idées et pratiques complémentaires de la résistance civile et de la construction de la paix, opérant à différentes étapes de la transformation du conflit. Les deux stratégies s’opposent à la violence sous toutes ses formes, et cherchent à atteindre une paix juste grâce à des moyens pacifiques. Cependant, elles adoptent des approches différentes, notamment dans leur analyse des racines de la violence et dans leur manière de répondre au conflit. Se basant sur un nombre d’études de cas, ce rapport vise à aider praticiens et chercheurs à comprendre comment l’intégration de ces deux stratégies peut soutenir la « mise en oeuvre de la paix ».
Por: Juan Masullo
Traducción: ICNC, November 2016
Volume editor: Amber French
Series editor: Maciej Bartkowski
Cuando los grupos armados llegan a sus territorios, la población civil por lo general colabora con el grupo armado más fuerte o se desplaza. Sin embargo, los civiles no están obligados a elegir entre estas dos opciones. Desafi ar a los grupos armados a través de auto-organización en formas noviolentas de no-cooperación es también una posibilidad. Esta monografía explora esta opción en el contexto del confl icto armado interno colombiano a través de la experiencia de resistencia civil de los campesinos de la Comunidad de San José de Apartadó.
Making of Breaking Nonviolent Discipline — Chinese
ཕྱི་ལོ་༢༠༠༨ ལོའི་བོད་མིའི་སྒེར་ལངས་ཀྱི་སྐབས་སུ། བོད་མིའི་འཐབ་རྩོད་དེ་དྲག་ཕྱོགས་སུ་སྐྱོད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་ཚུལ་རྒྱ་ནག་དྲིལ་ བསྒྲགས་ཀྱིས་བསྐུལ་བའི་འདུ་ཤེས་དེ་ལས་ལ
ཕྱི་ལོ་༢༠༠༨ ལོའི་བོད་མིའི་སྒེར་ལངས་ཀྱི་སྐབས་སུ། བོད་མིའི་འཐབ་རྩོད་དེ་དྲག་ཕྱོགས་སུ་སྐྱོད་ཀྱི་ཡོད་ཚུལ་རྒྱ་ནག་དྲིལ་བསྒྲགས་ཀྱིས་བསྐུལ་བའི་འདུ་ཤེས་དེ་ལས་ལྡོག་སྟེ། དཔྱད་བརྗོད་འདིས་ཕྱི་ལོ་༡༩༥༠ ནས་བཟུང་། བོད་མིའི་ལས་འགུལ་དེ་འཚེ་མེད་ཞི་བའི་འགོག་རྒོལ་གྱི་ཕྱོགས་སུ་ཤུགས་ཆེར་ཕྱིན་ཡོད་པ་སྟོན་གྱི་ཡོད། ཆེད་རྩོམ་འདིས་གྲགས་ཆེ་བའི་བོད་མིའི་སྒེར་ལངསཀྱི་དུས་ཡུན་གསུམ་ལ་དཔྱད་ཞིབ་ཀྱིས་དེ་དག་གི་བརྗོད་གཞི་དང་། དགོས་དོན། ཀླན་ཀ། ཐབས་བྱུས། འཐབ་རྩལ། ཤུགས་རྐྱེན་བཅས་གཙོ་བོ་ཁག་ལ་དཔྱད་པ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཡོད།
The Tibetan Nonviolent Struggle: A Strategic and Historical Analysis — Tibetan
Prison Hunger Strikes as Civil Resistance: A Global Perspective on Political Resistance in Prisons (tentative title)
By: Malaka Mohammed Shwaikh & Rebecca Ruth Gould
This monograph examines six different global contexts wherein prison hunger strikes have been used as a tool of civil resistance, with a specific focus on hunger strikes among Palestinian prisoners in Israeli jails from 1948 to the present. Drawing on first-hand interviews, archival research, and primary and secondary research in many languages, the authors examine how hunger strikes have generated solidarity among prison populations from Palestine, South Africa, and Northern Ireland to Iran, Turkey, and the United States. They offer an innovative typology for the effectiveness of hunger strikes and other forms of civil resistance across the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and North America that foregrounds the differences and similarities between prison strikes in regimes of occupation and apartheid and within liberal democracies. Addressed to both academics and practitioners, this is the first monograph to offer a comparative account of prison hunger strikes on a global scale, and to incorporate findings from international law, legal anthropology, political theory, and sociology into a broad theory of the capacity of nonviolent civil resistance to bring about measurable political change.
Material Resources Mobilization and Palestinian Nonviolent Popular Resistance Campaigns in Area C (tentative title)
By: Mahmoud Soliman
This research focuses on 10 specific nonviolent Palestinian campaigns in Area C where Palestinians are living under full Israeli control that restricts the use of material and represses Palestinian communities. These communities suffer from the lack of skills, democracy, and unity among national liberation movements. Despite these challenges, grassroots activists have been able to generate, manage, and use material resources. This research explores the ways material resources are funded from a wide range of actors, the ways in which grassroots activists have been able to manage and use material resources in these campaigns, and analyzes the impacts of internal and external material resources on advancing nonviolent campaigns.
Social Movements and Material Resources in Northwest Mexico (tentative title)
By: Chris Allan and Scott DuPree
Mexico has a long history of social movements grappling with fundamental issues of social justice. This study looks at the issue of what material resources are the most useful to social movement organizations, in particular understanding the difference between external and internal support strategies. We believe material resources cannot been seen as separate from the social narratives associated with these resources. Our research hypothesis is, thus, that movements are able to build and mobilize material resources most effectively when they come from within their movements. Research results, we expect, will offer a practical way to map material resources that can guide understanding of how movements can expand their resource base.
The Impact of Nonviolent Resistance on Civil War Resolution (tentative title)
By: Luke Abbs
In recent years, a burgeoning literature has explored the strategic advantages of using nonviolent resistance to achieve positive political outcomes, such as regime change and democratization. Yet, despite one-fifth of large-scale nonviolent campaigns occurring during the course of a civil war, we know little about the affect nonviolent resistance might have on the transformation of armed conflict. Bringing together the previously isolated literatures on nonviolent resistance and peacebuilding, this manuscript explores how nonviolent resistance can aid peacebuilding efforts that transform ongoing armed conflict, using data on all civil wars episodes since 1945. The finding show nonviolent resistance does have a positive impact on the resolution of armed conflict, with evidence deriving from a Large-N statistical analysis, out-of-sample prediction and structured-focused case studies.
Civil Resistance against Climate Change: Strategies, Tactics and Outcomes of a National Climate Change Movement in Australia (tentative title)
By: Robyn Gulliver, Kelly Fielding, and Winnifred Louis
Transnational movements using nonviolent resistance tactics to demand action on climate change have emerged from a foundation of decades of persistent and diverse environmental activism. What are the features of this nonviolent resistance that differentiate it from previous activism? What response is this resistance prompting from political and financial entities? To investigate these questions this monograph combines a large-scale longitudinal data set on climate activism in Australia with two case studies of nonviolent resistance against corporations. Through this analysis the monograph will create an extensive empirical data set for theory-testing about climate change activism, as well as a tool to help practitioners engaged in climate activism make timely and well-informed strategic and tactical decisions.
Trust and Mobilization in Africa’s Third Wave of Protest (tentative title)
By: Jacob S. Lewis
What role does trust play in shaping the outcomes of civil resistance campaigns? Trust has been found to be a critical factor in building political and social capital, encouraging group cohesion, and overcoming collective action problems. Despite this, trust has not been directly addressed by the civil resistance scholarship. This monograph addresses this lacuna by examining how trust shapes – and is shaped by – three levels of mobilization: trust at the individual level, trust within activist groups, and trust across resistance campaigns.
Forthcoming Special Reports & Case Studies
By: Qamar Jafri
The Pashtun Protection Movement Pakistan (PTMP) is a youth-led nonviolent resistance campaign for human rights for the Pashtun people in northwestern Pakistan. This movement’s is reminiscent of Pashtun historical icon Bacha Khan’s organizing nonviolent action for justice in Pakistan’s past. How are these young Pashtuns differentiating themselves from violent religious extremists (e.g. Taliban Movement) and resisting government repression and mistreatment through nonviolent resistance activities? How do they develop and use nonviolent strategies and tactics in their protests and actions? How do they engage supporters and opponents of the movement? How do they manage funding and media coverage of their activities? The study seeks to answer these and other questions questions via relevant field research and data collection and is funded by the ICNC as part of its 2018 rapid field data collection grant.
By: Ben Naimark-Rowse
Why and how have some institutional donors in the United States supported nonviolent social movement building in non-democracies?
A number of movement-centric research projects seek to explore the effects of donor support for nonviolent social movements on their success or failure. By contrast, this research is donor-centric. It seeks to understand why and how donors decide to support nonviolent social movement building in the first place. This research will explore a range of factors that might influence donor support for social movement building including donors’ internal structures, donors’ perception of political risk, and the nature of donors’ understanding of and relationships to social movements.
In collaboration with the Human Rights Funders Network, this project will utilize the Advancing Human Rights database to outline trends in donor support from 2011-2015. Interviews with and a comparative case study of donors will allow this project to offer a detailed understanding of how donors work. In doing so, this research seeks to offer insights to donors, academics, and movements, amongst others about the availability of financial and other resources for social movement building in closed and closing political spaces.
ICNC’s Civil Resistance and Peacebuilding Case Studies Report features in-depth research and analysis on the interplays of civil resistance (CR) and peacebuilding (PB). These case studies are based on the analytical framework developed by Veronique Dudouet in the ICNC Special Report, Powering to Peace: Integrated Civil Resistance and Peacebuilding Strategies, and provide specific examples from single, country-specific conflicts to illustrate the intersection of the CR and PB strategies in helping reduce violence and building more peaceful societies.
Forthcoming Resources for Practitioners
by Ivan Marovic and Hardy Merriman
For eleven straight years, freedom and democracy has declined around the globe. The world is in a slow-moving crisis, with authoritarians playing offense and adapting their strategies to prevent and counter civil resistance. Meanwhile, populists are also trying to drive popular discontent and use it for their own personal gain. Civil resistance movements must adapt their strategies in the face of these realities, and new thinking is required.
Liberating Politics aims to take the best insights from scholars and grassroots practitioners over the last decade and make them available to anybody who is preparing for or following the next wave of nonviolent resistance movements. Research in the field of civil resistance has progressed significantly in recent years, but far too little of it has been accessible to activists. Using data and examples with diagrams, photos and other visuals, this book will provide up-to-date understanding of diverse aspects of civil resistance and practical insights about waging nonviolent struggle, drawn from cases around the world. It will be available online for free download and in hard copy for a low price.